.RU

Part II ^ ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY - А. З. Цисык; пер на англ яз. А. З. Цисык. Минск : бгму, 2010. 212 с


Part II

^ ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY


Lesson 3

THE STRUCTURE OF LATIN ANATOMICAL TERMS.
NOUN AND ITS GRAMMAR CATEGORIES

§ 18. The Latin terminology in anatomy and its structure

Anatomical terminology naming all parts of the human body is the base of medical terminology. For more than a century the so-called Terminologia Anatomica — The International Anatomical Terminology in Latin which
is accepted by anatomists of the world has existed. Latin is also the base
for creating equivalent terms in other languages. The last edition of
this International Anatomic Terminology appeared in 1998 and it contains
7428 terms.

The anatomical term is a word or several words used to denote a definite unit or structure of the human body. So Latin anatomical terms may consist of one, two, three, four and more words — up to 8.

One-word terms consist of one noun in singular or plural:

cor (heart), fauces (fauces)

Two-word terms may consist of:

1. A noun with an adjective in singular or plural:

crista renālis (renal crest); nodi faciāles (facial nodes)

2. Two nouns in singular or plural:

corpus vertĕbrae (body of vertebra); terminatiōnes nervōrum (nerve terminals)

Three-word terms may consist of:

1. Three nouns:

ala cristae galli (wing of cock’s crest); lamĭna arcus vertĕbrae (lamina of vertebral arch)

2. One noun plus two adjectives:

glandŭlae salivariae minōres (minor salivary glands); plexus cervicālis posterior (posterior cervical plexus)

3. Two nouns plus one adjective:

arcus anterior atlantis (anterior arch of atlas); tuberosĭtas ossis sacri (sacral tuberosity)

In multiword terms several nouns and adjectives can be presented:

fissūra horizontālis pulmōnis dextri (horizontal fissure of right lung);

proccessus uncinātus vertĕbrae thoracĭcae primae (uncinate process of
the first thoracic vertebra)


§ 19. Grammar categories of noun

The grammar categories of a Latin noun are the following: 1. Gender.
2. Number. 3. Case. 4. Declension.

There are three genders in Latin: masculine (masculīnum m); feminine (feminīnum f); neutral (neutrum n).

English nouns, in contrast to Latin ones, have only a natural gender: nouns denoting males are masculine (boy, man), nouns denoting females are feminine (girl, women) and nouns denoting inanimate objects are of neutral gender (bone, vessel).

Latin nouns always have only a grammar gender, which is determined by the ending, but what is more significant, by gender signs too (m, f, n). These gender signs are given in the dictionaries, where nouns are presented in the so-called word or dictionary form, which we shall discuss later.

As to the number, both English and Latin have two numbers — singular (singulāris) and plural (plurālis). Just like in English, the number of the noun in Latin shows whether we speak about one thing or more than one. Plural indications in English are very simple (endings -s or -es). In Latin, these indications are more numerous and are determined by the gender and declension. Plural endings will be discussed in detail in a special section.

Case as a grammar category is not presented in every language. It is absent, for example, in French, Italian and Spanish. As to English, we can speak about
a “common case” and a “possessive case”. In contrast to English, in Latin there are six different forms of noun endings corresponding to each case. Only four case forms of Latin nouns are used in medical terms:

^ Nominatīvus, Nominative (answers the questions who, what)

Genetīvus, Genitive (answers the questions whose, of what)

Accusatīvus, Accusative (answers the questions whom, what)

Ablatīvus, Ablative (answers the questions by whom, with what).

The first two cases (Nominative and Genitive) are mainly used in
the medical terminology, the other cases occur more rarely, they are used in anatomical and pharmaceutical terms in combination with prepositions.

§ 20. Dictionary form of nouns

It is of vital importance to always remember that each Latin noun must be learnt in its “Dictionary form”. This form consists of three components:

1. The full form of the Nominative singular.

2. The Genitive singular ending, indicating the type of declension.

3. Definition of the grammar gender (with the letters m, f, n):

Written form

Oral form

^ English equivalent of the noun

ala, ae f

ala, alae, feminīnum

wing

ligamentum, i n

ligamentum, ligamenti, neutrum

ligament

nervus, i m

nervus, nervi, masculīnum

nerve

cancer, cri m

cancer, cancri, masculīnum

cancer

Eucalyptus, i f

Eucalyptus, Eucalypti, feminīnum

eucalypt

cornu, us n

cornu, cornus, neutrum

horn

corpus, ŏris n

corpus, corpŏris, neutrum

body

§ 21. The stem of the noun and the way to determine it

The stem of the noun is essential for declining and word building.
It is determined by removing the Genitive ending which indicates the type of
the declension:

^ Dictionary form

Full form of the Genitive

Stem of noun

crista, ae f ri

crist-ae

crist-

sulcus, i m — furrow, groove, sulcus

sulc-i

sulc-

cancer, cri m — cancer

cancr-i

cancr-

forāmen, ǐnis n — opening

foramĭn-is

foramĭn-

arcus, us m — arch

arc-us

arc-

facies, ēi f — face, surface

faci-ēi

faci-

§ 22. Description of declensions

Nouns with the ending -ae in the Genitive singular belong to the 1st declension; they are mainly feminine:

ala, ae f — wing

crista, ae f — crest

vertĕbra, ae f — vertebra

Nouns having the ending -i in the Genitive singular belong to the 2nd declension.

Nouns of the masculine gender can have the ending -us in the Nominative (the greatest part) or -er (very limited in number):

angŭlus, i m — angle

muscŭlus, i m — muscle

nervus, i m — nerve

cancer, cri m — cancer (the full form of Genitive — cancri)

Nouns of the neutral gender have also two types: nouns with the ending form -um (the main part), and nouns with the ending form -on (they are of Greek origin), compare:

ligamentum, i n — ligament

dorsum, i n — back

encephălon, i n — brain

colon, i n — colon, large intestine

^ The 3rd declension is the most numerous one. Here are presented
the nouns of all genders and with different endings in the Nominative having
the ending, — is in the Genitive. They are commonly divided into two groups.

The first one includes nouns having equal number of syllables in
the Nominative and Genitive (so-called parisyllaba):

basis, basis f (basis, is f) — base

canālis, canālis m (canalis, is m) — canal

The second and the most numerous part of the nouns has one more syllable in the Genitive compared to the Nominative (so-called imparisyllaba):

apex, apǐcis m (the written dictionary form apex, ǐcis m) — apex, tip

tuberosǐtas, tuberositātis f (tuberosǐtas, ātis f) — tuberosity

forāmen, foramǐnis n (forāmen, ǐnis n) — foramen, opening

If such nouns have only one syllable in the Nominative, then the complete form of the Genitive is:

dens, dentis m — tooth

os, ossis n — bone

pars, partis f — part

^ The 4th declension includes nouns of the masculine and neutral gender having the ending -us in the Genitive:

processus, processus m (processus, us m) — process

ductus, ductus m (ductus, us m) — duct

cornu, cornus n (cornu, us n) — horn

^ The 5th declension includes nouns having the ending -ei in the Genitive:

facies, faciēi f (facies, ēi f) — face, surface

Attention! Remember the following:

1. Feminine nouns may occur in the 2nd and 4th declensions, masculine ones in the 1st: oculista, ae m (ophthalmologist), Eucalyptus, i f (eucalypt), manus, us f (hand).

2. Two groups of nouns of the Greek origin retain their particular form:

2.1. Feminine nouns with the ending -e in the Nominative and -es in
the Genitive: raphe, es f (a seam on the bony tissue).

2.2. Masculine nouns with the ending -es in the Nominative and -ae in
the Genitive: diabētes, ae m (diabetes)

§ 23. Exercises

  1. Give in written form the dictionary form of the following nouns:

apex, basis, canālis, cancer, cornu, corpus, cranium, dens, encephălon, facies, ganglion, lingua, mandibǔla, nasus, nervus, orgănon, os, radix, scapǔla, sternum, sulcus, tuber, tubercǔlum, tuberosǐtas

  1. Give in written form the dictionary form of the following nouns and define their stem and declension:

abdomen, angle, arch, base, bone, canal, crest, duct, head, horn, ligament, lower jaw, nose, opening, region, root (radix), skin, skull, surface, tongue, tooth, upper jaw

  1. Write down the dictionary form of the nouns, translate the terms from Latin:

apex linguae; angǔlus faciēi nasi; basis cranii; canālis radīcis dentis; corpus vertĕbrae; facies tubercǔli costae; incisūra mandibǔlae; nervus encephǎli; pars faciēi sterni; septum nasi; sulcus sinus; tuber maxillae

  1. ^ Give the dictionary form of each noun, translate the terms into Latin:

abdomen cavity; arch of aorta; base of mandible; body of upper jaw; canal of dental radix (radix of tooth); cancer of the skin; cavity of the nose; cervical part (part of cervix); crest of the rib head; face bone; head of rib; nerve of
the brain; nervous node of the neck; part of the process; region of skull; skin nerve; sternal angle (angle of sternum); surface of knee; top of the horn; vertebral arch (arch of vertebra)

§ 24. Vocabulary to lesson 3

Latin-English vocabulary

1st declension

costa, ae f — rib

incisūra, ae f — incisure, slit or notch

lingua, ae f — tongue

mandibǔla, ae f — lower jaw, mandible

maxilla, ae f — upper jaw, maxilla

^ 2nd declension

angŭlus, i m — angle

cancer, cri m — cancer

cranium, i n — skull

encephălon i n — brain

ganglion, i n — nervous node

nasus, i m — nose

nervus, i m — nerve

orgănon, i n — organ

septum, i n — septum, dividing wall

sternum, i n — sternum, breast- bone

sulcus, i m — sulcus, furrow or groove

tubercŭlum, i n — tubercle, small rounded swelling

^ 3rd declension

apex, ǐcis m — apex, top

basis, is f — base

caput, ǐtis n — head

canālis, is m — canal

corpus, ǒris n — body

dens, dentis m — tooth

os, ossis n — bone

radix, īcis f — radix, root

regio, ōnis f — region

tuber, ĕris n — tuber, large rounded swelling

tuberosǐtas, ātis f — tuberosity

^ 4th declension

cornu, us n — horn, hornshaped process

processus, us m — process

sinus, us m — sinus, hollow curvature or cavity

5th declension

facies, ēi f — face, surface


English-Latin vocabulary

abdomen — abdōmen, ǐnis n

aorta — aorta, ae f

angle — angŭlus, i m

apex, top — apex, ǐcis m

arch — arcus, us m

base — basis, is f

body — corpus, ŏris n

bone — os, ossis n

canal — canālis, is m

cavity — cavǐtas, ātis f

cervical: see neck

costal: see rib

cranial: see skull

crest — crista, ae f

dental: see tooth

duct — ductus, us m

ganglion, nervous node — ganglion, i n

face — facies, ēi f

head — caput, ǐtis n

horn — cornu, us n

knee — genu, us n

ligament — ligamentum, i n

lower jaw, mandible — mandibǔla, ae f

neck — cervix, īcis f

nerve — nervus, i m

nose — nasus, i m

opening — forāmen, ǐnis n

part — pars, partis f

region — regio, ōnis f

rib — costa, ae f

root, radix — radix, īcis f

skin — cutis, is f

skull — cranium, i n

surface — facies, ēi f

tongue — lingua, ae f

tooth — dens, dentis m

upper jaw, maxilla — maxilla, ae f

vertebra — vertĕbra, ae f

vertebral: see vertebra


Lesson 4

^ ADJECTIVES AND THEIR DICTIONARY FORM.
ADJECTIVE AND NOUN AGREEMENT

§ 25. Introductory information about adjectives in Latin

Both in English and Latin the adjective is a word expressing the quality of a thing: long, short, nasal, simple and so on.

But in contrast to English, Latin adjectives have always grammar agreement with their nouns, that is a noun and an adjective must have the same gender, case and number. The adjective follows the noun.

According to their endings all Latin adjectives are divided into two groups.

§ 26. 1st group of adjectives

Adjectives which have three gender endings make up the 1st group: Masculine forms have the ending -us or -er, Feminine — -a, Neutral — -um:

Masculine

Feminine

Neutral

longus (long)

liber (free)

dexter (right)

longa

libĕra

dextra

longum

libĕrum

dextrum


The dictionary form of adjectives includes the full masculine form, endings of the feminine and the neutral ones (when answering, every gender form is pronounced!). All these forms are in the Nominative:

longus, a, um — long oral form: longus, longa, longum

liber, ĕra, ĕrum — free oral form: liber, libĕra, libĕrum

dexter, tra, trum — right oral form: dexter, dextra, dextrum

In the last two adjectives the endings of the feminine and the neutral forms are enlarged. It is common for the adjectives with the ending -er in
the masculine form because it helps us determine, whether the vowel -e in
the feminine and the neutral forms is lost or not.

The gender forms of the adjectives of this group have the declension pattern in the nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions: feminine forms are declined like the nouns of the first declension, masculine and neutral forms — like
the nouns of the second declension. The stem of these adjectives is determined like that of the nouns:

^ Gender form

Nominative

Genitive

Declension

Stem

masculine

longus

longi

second

long-

feminine

longa

longae

first

long-

neutral

longum

longi

second

long-

masculine

liber

libĕri

second

liber-

feminine

libĕra

libĕrae

first

liber-

neutral

libĕrum

libĕri

second

liber-

masculine

dexter

dextri

second

dextr-

feminine

dextra

dextrae

first

dextr-

neutral

dextrum

dextri

second

dextr-


As to the adjectives with the masculine form -er, it is more convenient to determine their stem from the feminine Genitive form.

§ 27. 2nd group of adjectives

This group includes adjectives following the rules of the third declension of nouns. According to their gender endings they are divided into three subgroups. The stem of this group of adjectives is determined like in the preceding group.

^ The first subgroup is made up of adjectives having three gender endings:
-er for masculine, -is for feminine, -e for neutral:

^ Masculine form

Feminine form

Neutral form

Genitive form

Stem

acer (sharp, acute)

acris

acre

acris

acr-

celer (quick, fast)

celĕris

celĕre

celĕris

celer-


The written dictionary form, as in the previous group, includes the full masculine form and the endings of the feminine and the neutral:

acer, cris, cre

celer, ĕris, ĕre

When answering orally, every gender form is pronounced in full.

^ The second subgroup includes adjectives with two gender endings. Masculine and feminine forms have the common ending -is, neutral —
the ending -e:

^ Masculine and Feminine form

Neutral form

Genitive form

Stem

brevis (brief, short)

breve

brevis

brev-

frontālis (frontal)

frontāle

frontālis

frontal-

sacrālis (sacral)

sacrāle

sacrālis

sacral-


Adjectives of this subgroup are the most numerous in every branch of medical terminology.

The dictionary form of these adjectives consists of the full masculine/feminine form and the ending of neutral:

brevis, e; frontalis, e; sacralis, e

^ The third subgroup is made up of adjectives with one ending, common for the three genders. There are four kinds of such common endings:

1) -ns: sapiens (masculine, feminine, neutral) intelligent

2) -s: teres (masculine, feminine, neutral) round

3) -r: par (masculine, feminine, neutral) equal, pair

4) -x: simplex (masculine, feminine, neutral) simple

Let us look at these adjectives from the point of view of their Genitive form and their stem:

^ Gender form

Nominative form

Genitive form

Stem

masculine

feminine

neutral

sapiens

sapiens

sapiens

sapientis

sapient-

masculine

feminine

neutral

teres

teres

teres

terĕtis

teret-

masculine

feminine

neutral

par

par

par

paris

par-

masculine

feminine

neutral

simplex

simplex

simplex

simplǐcis

simplic-


The dictionary form of these adjectives includes the Nominative form and the Genitive ending:

sapiens, entis (oral form sapiens, sapientis)

teres, ĕtis (oral form teres, terĕtis)

par, is (oral form par, paris)

simplex, ǐcis (oral form simplex, simplicis)


optimizaciya-prilozhenij-sbuilder-v-arhitekture-klientserver.html
optimizaciya-programmi-proizvodstva-transportirovki-produkcii.html
optimizaciya-relyacionnih-zaprosov-tehnicheskij-universitet-i-p-karpova-bazi-dannih-utverzhdeno-redakcionno-izdatelskim.html
optimizaciya-setevogo-grafika-po-vremeni.html
optimizaciya-sistem-teplosnabzheniya-mnogoetazhnih-zdanij.html
optimizaciya-sovmestimosti-uchebnoj-naglyadnosti-na-primere-uchebnikov-srednej-shkoli-13-00-01-obshaya-pedagogika-istoriya-pedagogiki-i-obrazovaniya.html
  • znaniya.bystrickaya.ru/rabochaya-uchebnaya-programma-po-informatike-i-informacionno-kommunikacionnim-tehnologiyam-klass-10-11-obsheobrazovatelnij-kurs-bazovij-uroven.html
  • books.bystrickaya.ru/cerkovnaya-organizaciya-udelnoj-rusi.html
  • kontrolnaya.bystrickaya.ru/rabochaya-programma-dlya-studentov-iii-kursa-po-specialnosti-270102-promishlennoe-i-grazhdanskoe-stroitelstvo-pgs.html
  • urok.bystrickaya.ru/pravitelstvo-sankt-peterburga-informacionnij-byulleten-administracii-sankt-peterburga-16-667-3-maya-2010-g.html
  • universitet.bystrickaya.ru/tema-29-audit-personala-rabochaya-programma-uchebnoj-disciplini-upravlenie-personalom-dlya-studentov-specialnostej.html
  • report.bystrickaya.ru/istoricheskij-ocherk-nesmotrya-na-to-chto-zloupotreblenie-narkotikami-stalo-odnoj-iz-vazhnejshih-mirovih-problem-sovsem-nedavno-v-xx-veke-opit-upotrebleniya-lyudmi-narkoticheskih-veshestv-izmeryaetsya-tisyacheletiyami.html
  • paragraph.bystrickaya.ru/mediko-tehnicheskie-trebovaniya-na-postavku-medicinskogo-oborudovaniya-dlya-nuzhd-minoboroni-rossii-v-2008-g-stranica-6.html
  • uchebnik.bystrickaya.ru/uchebnoe-posobie-sankt-peterburg-2007-sostavila-zueva-t-v-st-metodist-regel-n-i-posobie-prednaznacheno-dlya-izucheniya-sootvetstvuyushih-razdelov-disciplin-matematika-ielementi-visshej-matematiki-stranica-2.html
  • kontrolnaya.bystrickaya.ru/rabochaya-programma-kunarevoj-arini-vyacheslavovni-po-uchebnomu-kursu-algebra-i-nachala-analiza.html
  • write.bystrickaya.ru/glava-14-chem-zavershilsya-razgrom-nemcev-pod-moskvoj-suvorov-viktor-ten-pobedi-soderzhani-e.html
  • uchit.bystrickaya.ru/tema-6-temperament-metodicheskie-rekomendacii-k-kursu-pedagogika-i-psihologiya.html
  • znanie.bystrickaya.ru/alyuminij.html
  • esse.bystrickaya.ru/protokol-vskritiya-konvertov-s-zayavkami-na-uchastie-v-konkurse-po-gosudarstvennoj-zakupke-uslug-po-provedeniyu-audita-finansovoj-otchetnosti-ao-nacionalnaya-kompan.html
  • lektsiya.bystrickaya.ru/programma-biologiya-i-sostav-pchelinoj-semi-produkti-pchelovodstva-16-akademicheskih-chasov.html
  • laboratornaya.bystrickaya.ru/rasskazi-o-chudesah-stranica-73.html
  • lesson.bystrickaya.ru/pribori-dlya-amperometricheskogo-titrovaniya.html
  • zadachi.bystrickaya.ru/nazvanie-tematicheskij-rubrikator-hranilisha-cor-stranica-3.html
  • assessments.bystrickaya.ru/doklad-po-discipline-istoriya-kulturi-na-temu-karl-bryullov-i-ego-kartina-vsadnica.html
  • laboratornaya.bystrickaya.ru/protokol-rassmotreniya-i-ocenki-kotirovochnih-zayavok-stranica-6.html
  • ekzamen.bystrickaya.ru/rol-instituta-domashnego-hozyajstva-v-formirovanii-promishlennoj-politiki-gosudarstva.html
  • knigi.bystrickaya.ru/rozhdenie-volshebnici-stranica-9.html
  • spur.bystrickaya.ru/majkopskij-gorodskoj-komitet-vlksm-upravlenie-po-delam-arhivov-respubliki-adigeya-gosudarstvennoe-uchrezhdenie-nacionalnij.html
  • abstract.bystrickaya.ru/252-stranovie-i-regionalnie-riski-121059-rossiya-g-moskva-ul-bryanskaya-d-5-informaciya-soderzhashayasya-v-nastoyashem.html
  • occupation.bystrickaya.ru/mezhdunarodnie-meropriyatiya-2007-god-egionalnim-centram-rossii-i-dr-s-1998-goda-informaciya-rassilaetsya-v-tom.html
  • studies.bystrickaya.ru/45-proverka-planirovanie-14-4-realizaciya-i-ispolzovanie-23-5-proverka-32-6-analiz-so-storoni-rukovodstva-35-prilozhenie-a-38.html
  • essay.bystrickaya.ru/doklad-o-sostoyanii-i-ispolzovanii-zemel-v-tyumenskoj-oblasti-v-2010-godu.html
  • thescience.bystrickaya.ru/instrukciya-po-ekspluatacii-versiya-2-aprel-11-2003-programmnij-kod-stranica-8.html
  • shpargalka.bystrickaya.ru/ustav-federalnogo-gosudarstvennogo-obrazovatelnogo-uchrezhdeniya-visshego-professionalnogo-obrazovaniya.html
  • thesis.bystrickaya.ru/prezident-medvedev-predstavil-pravitelstvu-byudzhetnoe-poslanie-na-budushij-god-novosti-9.html
  • uchitel.bystrickaya.ru/programma-speckursa-inostrannij-yazik-v-v-professionalnoj-sfere.html
  • learn.bystrickaya.ru/glava-v-socialnie-garantii-realizacii-prav-grazhdan-na-obrazovanie-zakon-rf-ot-10-iyulya-1992-g-n-3266-1-ob-obrazovanii.html
  • institut.bystrickaya.ru/standartizaciya-i-kontrol-kachestva-lekarstvennogo-rastitelnogo-sirya.html
  • tasks.bystrickaya.ru/361649017-67-napravit-otchet-po-rezultatam-proverki-v-sovet-federacii-i-gosudarstvennuyu-dumu-federalnogo-sobraniya.html
  • institute.bystrickaya.ru/f-uchebnaya-programma-kursa-fpkp-soglasovano-pervij-prorektor-prorektor-po-uchebnoj-rabote-n-t-gurin.html
  • paragraph.bystrickaya.ru/kratkij-obzor-nadlezhashej-praktiki-po-obespecheniyu-prozrachnosti-v-byudzhetno-nalogovoj-sfere-primenitelno-k-upravleniyu-dohodami-ot-prirodnih-resursov.html
  • © bystrickaya.ru
    Мобильный рефератник - для мобильных людей.